With Surveillance and Situation Awareness are generally addressed those processes allowing the observation and monitoring of people, physical objects, areas of different dimensions to detect
anomalies with respect to existing rules or typical behaviors. The processes include the ability to apply Command and Control actions when an unwanted or anomalous event takes place.
The automatic detection of anomalous events, in particular, represents the main focus of this Area.
It implies the technology to detect, and possibly understand, the arising of potential threats. The capability to effectively reacts against the threats in complex scenarios is also a critical issue
of technological developments. Increasing the effectiveness of Surveillance of an area or an asset (like airport sites, buildings, railway infrastructures etc..) is the target of Technology Area 1 and can be obtained by means of an intelligent fusion of information and data coming from different sensing sources (typical examples are the possibility to correlate radar patterns with satellite or camera images). Other key issues refers to the possibility to grant a continuous observation (typically H24) and the capability to correlate many sensors not only for single events, but also within a deﬁned time-sliding observation window. Surveillance can be categorized like:
- Single Point surveillance (each single access);
- Perimeter Surveillance (or Border Surveillance);
- Area Surveillance (possibility of large extensions).
Surveillance is also important to ensure Geocasting, Positioning and Navigation Support functionalities.
Situation Awareness needs for the capability to process operational data and to synthesize them in a unique, encompassing framework. This is realized by means of the integration of the Command and Control Centers (C2) that are the ﬁnal targets of technologies like:
- Common Operational Pictures (COP), the capability to synthesize information coming from different sensors, units, equipment and Teams acting on the ﬁeld;
- Human-Machine Interface (HMI) to cope with Situation Awareness / Enhanced Situation Awareness capabilities (including the integration of data coming from cognitive systems);
- Decision Support tools (like Cognitive Analysis, procedural workﬂows, data correlation, etc…);
- Simulation scenario and Lessons Learnt tools;
- Data Fusion and Reasoning Expert Systems, intended for the early alarm and the decision support (including the capability to take in account the past events history);
- Architectures for net-centered systems, to circulate commands and high priority information.
In short, surveillance technologies are centered on:
o Electro-optical technologies (large spectrum);
o Sensor networks (wireless, cabled, etc…).
o Aerial, Marine, Satellite, Terrestrial platforms (both static and mobiles like UAV etc…);
o Integration of Surveillance and Situation Awareness systems.